The curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Ps. 32:9 is elsewhere “translated “bridle” (2 Kings 19:28; Prov. 26:3; Isa. 37:29).” “Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also” of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version “translates the Greek word by “bits,” but the Revised Version by” bridles.
“The broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan” “valley, on the east of the river (2 Sam. 2:29). It was probably” “the designation of the region in general, which is broken and” intersected by ravines.
“A province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and” Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early time (1 Pet. 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church “history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul,” who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the numerous Christians brought before his tribunal on account of “their profession of Christianity and their conduct, and wrote to” “Trajan, the emperor, for instructions (A.D. 107).”
“Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude” (Ex. 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jer. 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the “bitter and hasty nation (Hab. 1:6). The “gall of bitterness” “expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A “root of” “bitterness” is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Heb. 12:15).” “The Passover was to be eaten with “bitter herbs” (Ex. 12:8; Num. 9:11). The kind of herbs so designated is not known. Probably they were any bitter herbs obtainable at the place and time when the Passover was celebrated. They represented the severity of the servitude under which the people groaned; and have been regarded also as typical of the sufferings of Christ.
Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come “upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isa. 14:23; 34:11; Zeph.” 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific “name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting” marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the “Authorized Version is rendered “porcupine” in the Revised” Version. But in the passages noted the kippod is associated with “birds, with pools of water, and with solitude and desolation.” “This favours the idea that not the “porcupine” but the “bittern” is really intended by the word.