Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for” “various purposes (Josh. 6:4, 5).” “Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39). “But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Ex. 27:2) and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (29:12; “Lev. 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found” an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar (1 Kings 1:50; 2:28). “The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isa. 5:1, “where the word “hill” is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).” “This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deut. 33:17) “and honour (Job 16:15; Lam. 2:3). Horns are emblems of power,” “dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief means of” “attack and defence with the animals endowed with them (Dan. 8:5,” “9; 1 Sam. 2:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39; 22:11; Josh. 6:4, 5; Ps.” “75:5, 10; 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The expression “horn of” “salvation,” applied to Christ, means a salvation of strength, or” “a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn “exalted” denotes” “prosperity and triumph (Ps. 89:17, 24). To “lift up” the horn is” to act proudly (Zech. 1:21). “Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jer. 48:25; Zech. 1:18; Dan. 8:24).

“Heb. tsir’ah, “stinging”, (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12).” The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize “the people as a “terror of God” (Gen. 35:5), the consternation” with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Palestine there “are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being” “larger in size, and they are very abundant. They “attack human” “beings in a very furious manner.” “The furious attack of a swarm” “of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even” “caused the death of the animals.”

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