“The common Hebrew word for wine is yayin, from a root meaning” “to boil up, “to be in a ferment.” Others derive it from a root” “meaning “to tread out,” and hence the juice of the grape trodden” “out. The Greek word for wine is oinos_, and the Latin _vinun.” “But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others” which are thus rendered. “(1.) Ashishah (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1), “which, however, rather denotes a solid cake of pressed grapes,” “or, as in the Revised Version, a cake of raisins.” “(2.) `Asis, “sweet wine,” or “new wine,” the product of the same “year (Cant. 8:2; Isa. 49:26; Joel 1:5; 3:18; Amos 9:13), from a” “root meaning “to tread,” hence juice trodden out or pressed out,” thus referring to the method by which the juice is obtained. The power of intoxication is ascribed to it. “(3.) Hometz. See [666]VINEGAR. “(4.) Hemer, Deut. 32:14 (rendered “blood of the grape”) Isa. “27:2 (“red wine”), Ezra 6:9; 7:22; Dan. 5:1, 2, 4. This word” “conveys the idea of “foaming,” as in the process of” “fermentation, or when poured out. It is derived from the root” “hamar, meaning “to boil up,” and also “to be red,” from the idea” of boiling or becoming inflamed. “(5.) `Enabh, a grape (Deut. 32:14). The last clause of this “verse should be rendered as in the Revised Version, “and of the” “blood of the grape [`enabh] thou drankest wine [hemer].” In Hos.” “3:1 the phrase in Authorized Version, “flagons of wine,” is in” “the Revised Version correctly “cakes of raisins.” (Comp. Gen.” “49:11; Num. 6:3; Deut. 23:24, etc., where this Hebrew word is” “rendered in the plural “grapes.”)” “(6.) Mesekh, properly a mixture of wine and water with spices “that increase its stimulating properties (Isa. 5:22). Ps. 75:8,” The wine [yayin] is red; it is full of mixture [mesekh]; Prov. “23:30, “mixed wine;” Isa. 65:11, “drink offering” (R.V.,” mingled wine). “(7.) Tirosh, properly “must,” translated “wine” (Deut. 28:51); “new wine (Prov. 3:10); “sweet wine” (Micah 6:15; R.V.,” vintage). This Hebrew word has been traced to a root meaning to take possession of and hence it is supposed that tirosh is so designated because in intoxicating it takes possession of the brain. Among the blessings promised to Esau (Gen. 27:28) mention “is made of “plenty of corn and tirosh.” Palestine is called “a” “land of corn and tirosh” (Deut. 33:28; comp. Isa. 36:17). See” “also Deut. 28:51; 2 Chr. 32:28; Joel 2:19; Hos. 4:11, (“wine” “[yayin] and new wine [tirosh] take away the heart”).” “(8.) Sobhe (root meaning “to drink to excess,” “to suck up,” “absorb), found only in Isa. 1:22, Hos. 4:18 (“their drink;” “Gesen. and marg. of R.V., “their carouse”), and Nah. 1:10″ “(“drunken as drunkards;” lit., “soaked according to their” “drink;” R.V., “drenched, as it were, in their drink”, i.e.,” according to their sobhe). “(9.) Shekar, “strong drink,” any intoxicating liquor; from a “root meaning “to drink deeply,” “to be drunken”, a generic term” “applied to all fermented liquors, however obtained. Num. 28:7,” “strong wine (R.V., “strong drink”). It is sometimes” “distinguished from wine, c.g., Lev. 10:9, “Do not drink wine” “[yayin] nor strong drink [shekar];” Num. 6:3; Judg. 13:4, 7;” “Isa. 28:7 (in all these places rendered “strong drink”).” “Translated “strong drink” also in Isa. 5:11; 24:9; 29:9; 56:12;” Prov. 20:1; 31:6; Micah 2:11. “(10.) Yekebh (Deut. 16:13, but in R.V. correctly “wine-press”), “a vat into which the new wine flowed from the press. Joel 2:24,” “their vats; 3:13, “the fats;” Prov. 3:10, “Thy presses shall” “burst out with new wine [tirosh];” Hag. 2:16; Jer. 48:33,” wine-presses; 2 Kings 6:27; Job. 24:11. “(11.) Shemarim (only in plural), “lees” or “dregs” of wine. In “Isa. 25:6 it is rendered “wines on the lees”, i.e., wine that” “has been kept on the lees, and therefore old wine.” “(12.) Mesek, “a mixture,” mixed or spiced wine, not diluted with “water, but mixed with drugs and spices to increase its strength,” “or, as some think, mingled with the lees by being shaken (Ps.” 75:8; Prov. 23:30). “In Acts 2:13 the word gleukos, rendered “new wine,” denotes “properly “sweet wine.” It must have been intoxicating.” “In addition to wine the Hebrews also made use of what they “called debash, which was obtained by boiling down must to” one-half or one-third of its original bulk. In Gen. 43:11 this “word is rendered “honey.” It was a kind of syrup, and is called” by the Arabs at the present day dibs. This word occurs in the “phrase “a land flowing with milk and honey” (debash), Ex. 3:8,” 17; 13:5; 33:3; Lev. 20:24; Num. 13: 27. (See [667]HONEY.) “Our Lord miraculously supplied wine at the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11). The Rechabites were forbidden the use of wine (Jer. 35). The Nazarites also were to abstain from its use during the period of their vow (Num. 6:1-4); and those who were dedicated as Nazarites from their birth were “perpetually to abstain from it (Judg. 13:4, 5; Luke 1:15; 7:33).” “The priests, too, were forbidden the use of wine and strong” “drink when engaged in their sacred functions (Lev. 10:1, 9-11).” “Wine is little used now in the East, from the fact that” “Mohammedans are not allowed to taste it, and very few of other” “creeds touch it. When it is drunk, water is generally mixed with” “it, and this was the custom in the days of Christ also. The” people indeed are everywhere very sober in hot climates; a “drunken person, in fact, is never seen”, (Geikie’s Life of” “Christ). The sin of drunkenness, however, must have been not” “uncommon in the olden times, for it is mentioned either” metaphorically or literally more than seventy times in the Bible. “A drink-offering of wine was presented with the daily sacrifice “(Ex. 29:40, 41), and also with the offering of the first-fruits” “(Lev. 23:13), and with various other sacrifices (Num. 15:5, 7,” 10). Wine was used at the celebration of the Passover. And when “the Lord’s Supper was instituted, the wine and the unleavened” bread then on the paschal table were by our Lord set apart as memorials of his body and blood. “Several emphatic warnings are given in the New Testament against excess in the use of wine (Luke 21:34; Rom. 13:13; Eph. 5:18; 1 Tim. 3:8; Titus 1:7).

(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough “or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the” juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here “used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage” in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word lenos is used. This properly denotes the upper one of the two vats. (See [668]WINE-PRESS.)

“Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath,” Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and “(2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the” “juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job” “24:11; Isa. 63:2, 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are” “found in almost every part of Palestine. They are “the only sure” relics we have of the old days of Israel before the Captivity. Between Hebron and Beersheba they are found on all the hill slopes; they abound in southern Judea; they are no less common in the many valleys of Carmel; and they are numerous in “Galilee.” The “treading of the wine-press” is emblematic of” “divine judgment (Isa. 63:2; Lam. 1:15; Rev. 14:19, 20).”

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