Millions of Christians are persecuted today for their faith. To declare one’s allegiance to Christ in some countries is to risk imprisonment and death. Some families ostracize relatives who have received Christ as Saviour. Even
As he closed his second epistle to the Corinthians, Paul responded to the doubts of some Corinthian believers as to whether he was indeed a spokesman for Christ. Paul insisted that he was an apostle
Paul’s teaching tells us important things about the church and its ministry. There are different gifts but the same Lord. The Spirit gives believers gifts to build up the church. Paul named some of these
“This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a” “measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer,” and contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure (Ezek. 45:14). The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five “gallons, while Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1” “Kings 4:22; 5:11; 2 Chr. 2:10; 27:5, the original word is” “rendered “measure.”
“Heb. ramoth, meaning “heights;” i.e., “high-priced” or valuable” “things, or, as some suppose, “that which grows high,” like a” “tree (Job 28:18; Ezek. 27:16), according to the Rabbins, red” “coral, which was in use for ornaments.” “The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which the “animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it grows, but” usually is branched like a tree. Great coral reefs and coral “islands abound in the Red Sea, whence probably the Hebrews” “derived their knowledge of it. It is found of different colours,” “white, black, and red. The red, being esteemed the most” “precious, was used, as noticed above, for ornamental purposes.”
A Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the “temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the” year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16-24). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees “for their false doctrine, inasmuch as by their traditions they” had destroyed the commandment which requires children to honour “their father and mother, teaching them to find excuse from” “helping their parents by the device of pronouncing “Corban” over” “their goods, thus reserving them to their own selfish use.”
“Frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Ex.” “35:18; 39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa. 5:18), binding” “prisoners (Judg. 15:13; Ps. 2:3; 129:4), and measuring ground (2” “Sam. 8;2; Ps. 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the” “giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. “Is not their tent-cord” “plucked up?” R.V.). To gird one’s self with a cord was a token” of sorrow and humiliation. To stretch a line over a city meant “to level it with the ground (Lam. 2:8). The “cords of sin” are” “the consequences or fruits of sin (Prov. 5:22). A “threefold” “cord” is a symbol of union (Eccl. 4:12). The “cords of a man” “(Hos. 11:4) means that men employ, in inducing each other,” “methods such as are suitable to men, and not “cords” such as” “oxen are led by. Isaiah (5:18) says, “Woe unto them that draw” “iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart” “rope.” This verse is thus given in the Chaldee paraphrase: “Woe” “to those who begin to sin by little and little, drawing sin by” cords of vanity: these sins grow and increase till they are “strong and are like a cart rope.” This may be the true meaning.” The wicked at first draw sin with a slender cord; but by-and-by “their sins increase, and they are drawn after them by a cart” “rope. Henderson in his commentary says: “The meaning is that the” persons described were not satisfied with ordinary modes of “provoking the Deity, and the consequent ordinary approach of his” “vengeance, but, as it were, yoked themselves in the harness of” “iniquity, and, putting forth all their strength, drew down upon” “themselves, with accelerated speed, the load of punishment which” “their sins deserved.”
“Heb. gad, (Ex. 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is” likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of “botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk,” about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern “countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds,” which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally and as a spice. The Greek “name of this plant is korion or koriannon, whence the name” coriander.
“A Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to” the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The “ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that” “mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been” rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern Greece or Achaia (Acts 18:12-16). It was “noted for its wealth, and for the luxurious and immoral and” vicious habits of the people. It had a large mixed population of “Romans, Greeks, and Jews. When Paul first visited the city (A.D.” “51 or 52), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul. Here” Paul resided for eighteen months (18:1-18). Here he first became “aquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, and soon after his” departure Apollos came to it from Ephesus. After an interval he “visited it a second time, and remained for three months (20:3).” During this second visit his Epistle to the Romans was written (probably A.D. 55). Although there were many Jewish converts at “Corinth, yet the Gentile element prevailed in the church there.” “Some have argued from 2 Cor. 12:14; 13:1, that Paul visited “Corinth a third time (i.e., that on some unrecorded occasion he” visited the city between what are usually called the first and second visits). But the passages referred to only indicate “Paul’s intention to visit Corinth (comp. 1 Cor. 16:5, where the” “Greek present tense denotes an intention), an intention which” was in some way frustrated. We can hardly suppose that such a visit could have been made by the apostle without more distinct reference to it.
Was written from Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle’s sojourn there (Acts “19:10; 20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit” “Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57).” “The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had “arisen among them, first from Apollos (Acts 19:1), and then from” “a letter they had written him on the subject, and also from some” “of the “household of Chloe,” and from Stephanas and his two” friends who had visited him (1 Cor. 1:11; 16:17). Paul thereupon “wrote this letter, for the purpose of checking the factious” spirit and correcting the erroneous opinions that had sprung up “among them, and remedying the many abuses and disorderly” practices that prevailed. Titus and a brother whose name is not “given were probably the bearers of the letter (2 Cor. 2:13; 8:6,” 16-18). “The epistle may be divided into four parts: (1.) The apostle deals with the subject of the lamentable divisions and party strifes that had arisen among them (1 Cor. 1-4). (2.) He next treats of certain cases of immorality that had become notorious among them. They had apparently set at nought the very first principles of morality (5; 6). (3.) In the third part he discusses various questions of doctrine and of Christian ethics in reply to certain communications they had made to him. He especially rectifies certain flagrant abuses regarding the celebration of the Lord’s supper (7-14). “(4.) The concluding part (15; 16) contains an elaborate defense “of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead, which had been” “called in question by some among them, followed by some general” “instructions, intimations, and greetings.” “This epistle “shows the powerful self-control of the apostle in “spite of his physical weakness, his distressed circumstances,” “his incessant troubles, and his emotional nature. It was” “written, he tells us, in bitter anguish, `out of much affliction” and pressure of heart…and with streaming eyes’ (2 Cor. 2:4); “yet he restrained the expression of his feelings, and wrote with” a dignity and holy calm which he thought most calculated to win back his erring children. It gives a vivid picture of the early church…It entirely dissipates the dream that the apostolic church was in an exceptional condition of holiness of life or “purity of doctrine.” The apostle in this epistle unfolds and” applies great principles fitted to guide the church of all ages in dealing with the same and kindred evils in whatever form they may appear. “This is one of the epistles the authenticity of which has never “been called in question by critics of any school, so many and so” conclusive are the evidences of its Pauline origin. “The subscription to this epistle states erroneously in the Authorized Version that it was written at Philippi. This error “arose from a mistranslation of 1 Cor. 16:5, “For I do pass” “through Macedonia,” which was interpreted as meaning, “I am” “passing through Macedonia.” In 16:8 he declares his intention of” “remaining some time longer in Ephesus. After that, his purpose” “is to “pass through Macedonia.”
“Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul” “left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against” “him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to” “Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port” “of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus,” “whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the” effects produced on the church there by the first epistle; but “was disappointed (1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 1:8; 2:12, 13). He then” “left Troas and proceeded to Macedonia; and at Philippi, where he” “tarried, he was soon joined by Titus (2 Cor. 7:6, 7), who” “brought him good news from Corinth, and also by Timothy. Under” the influence of the feelings awakened in his mind by the “favourable report which Titus brought back from Corinth, this” “second epistle was written. It was probably written at Philippi,” “or, as some think, Thessalonica, early in the year A.D. 58, and” was sent to Corinth by Titus. This letter he addresses not only “to the church in Corinth, but also to the saints in all Achaia,” “i.e., in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece.” “The contents of this epistle may be thus arranged: “(1.) Paul speaks of his spiritual labours and course of life, and expresses his warm affection toward the Corinthians (2 Cor. 1-7). “(2.) He gives specific directions regarding the collection that was to be made for their poor brethren in Judea (8; 9). “(3.) He defends his own apostolic claim (10-13), and justifies himself from the charges and insinuations of the false teacher and his adherents. “This epistle, it has been well said, shows the individuallity of “the apostle more than any other. “Human weakness, spiritual” “strength, the deepest tenderness of affection, wounded feeling,” “sternness, irony, rebuke, impassioned self-vindication,” “humility, a just self-respect, zeal for the welfare of the weak” “and suffering, as well as for the progress of the church of” “Christ and for the spiritual advancement of its members, are all” “displayed in turn in the course of his appeal.”–Lias, Second” Corinthians. “Of the effects produced on the Corinthian church by this epistle we have no definite information. We know that Paul visited “Corinth after he had written it (Acts 20:2, 3), and that on that” occasion he tarried there for three months. In his letter to “Rome, written at this time, he sent salutations from some of the” principal members of the church to the Romans.
“(Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb. shalak, “plunging,” or “darting” “down,” (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the “unclean” birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a “plunging bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas” of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered “gannet (Sula bassana, “the solan goose”); others that it is” “the “tern” or “sea swallow,” which also frequents the coasts of” Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year. But there is no reason to depart from the ordinary rendering. “In Isa. 34:11, Zeph. 2:14 (but in R.V., “pelican”) the Hebrew “word rendered by this name is ka’ath. It is translated “pelican” “(q.v.) in Ps. 102:6. The word literally means the “vomiter,” and” the pelican is so called from its vomiting the shells and other things which it has voraciously swallowed. (See PELICAN.)
“The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen. 27:28, 37, Num. 18:27,” “Deut. 28:51, Lam. 2:12, is a general term representing all the” “commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds,” “peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in John” 12:24 “In Gen. 41:35, 49, Prov. 11:26, Joel 2:24 (“wheat”), the word “thus translated (bar; i.e., “winnowed”) means corn purified from” chaff. With this corresponds the use of the word in the New Testament (Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17; Acts 7:12). In Ps. 65:13 it “means “growing corn.” “In Gen. 42:1, 2, 19, Josh. 9:14, Neh. 10:31 (“victuals”), the “word (sheber; i.e., “broken,” i.e., grist) denotes generally” “victuals, provisions, and corn as a principal article of food.” “From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from “Palestine (Ezek. 27:17; Amos 8:5). “Plenty of corn” was a part” of Issac’s blessing conferred upon Jacob (Gen. 27:28; comp. Ps. 65:13).
A centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a “devout man, and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in” the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ. He and his family were baptized “and admitted into the Christian church (Acts 10:1, 44-48). (See” CENTURION.)
The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Prov. 7:8). Corners in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts of the “promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, the” “corners of Moab denotes the whole land of Moab. The “corner of” “a field” (Lev. 19:9; 23:22) is its extreme part, which was not” to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the “corners, i.e., the extremities, of the hair and whiskers” “running round the ears (Lev. 19:27; 21:5). The “four corners of” “the earth” in Isa. 11:12 and Ezek. 7:2 denotes the whole land.” “The “corners of the streets” mentioned in Matt. 6:5 means the” angles where streets meet so as to form a square or place of public resort. “The corner gate of Jerusalem (2 Kings 14:13; 2 Chr. 26:9) was on the north-west side of the city. “Corner-stone (Job 38:6; Isa. 28:16), a block of great importance “in binding together the sides of a building. The “head of the” “corner” (Ps. 118:22, 23) denotes the coping, the “coign of” “vantage”, i.e., the topstone of a building. But the word “corner” “stone” is sometimes used to denote some person of rank and” “importance (Isa. 28:16). It is applied to our Lord, who was set” “in highest honour (Matt. 21:42). He is also styled “the chief” “corner stone” (Eph. 2:20; 1 Pet. 2:6-8). When Zechariah (10:4),” “speaking of Judah, says, “Out of him came forth the corner,” he” is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the “Messiah as the “corner stone.” (See TEMPLE, SOLOMON’S.)”
“Heb. shophar, “brightness,” with reference to the clearness of” its sound (1 Chr. 15:28; 2 Chr. 15:14; Ps. 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It “is usually rendered in the Authorized Version “trumpet.” It” “denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long.” “The words of Joel, “Blow the trumpet,” literally, “Sound the” “cornet,” refer to the festival which was the preparation for the” “day of Atonement. In Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word (keren) so” “rendered is a curved horn. The word “cornet” in 2 Sam. 6:5 (Heb.” “mena’an’im, occurring only here) was some kind of instrument” “played by being shaken like the Egyptian sistrum, consisting of” rings or bells hung loosely on iron rods.
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