“(1) Heb. mererah, meaning “bitterness” (Job 16:13); i.e., the” bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison “of asps (20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (25).” “(2.) Heb. rosh. In Deut. 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos. 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered “hemlock. The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous” “plant, most probably the poppy, which grows up quickly, and is” therefore coupled with wormwood (Deut. 29:18; Jer. 9:15; Lam. “3:19). Comp. Jer. 8:14; 23:15, “water of gall,” Gesenius, “poppy” “juice;” others, “water of hemlock,” “bitter water.” “(3.) Gr. chole (Matt. 27:34), the LXX. translation of the Hebrew “rosh in Ps. 69; 21, which foretells our Lord’s sufferings. The” drink offered to our Lord was vinegar (made of light wine “rendered acid, the common drink of Roman soldiers) “mingled with” “gall,” or, according to Mark (15:23), “mingled with myrrh;” both” “expressions meaning the same thing, namely, that the vinegar was” made bitter by the infusion of wormwood or some other bitter “substance, usually given, according to a merciful custom, as an” “anodyne to those who were crucified, to render them insensible” “to pain. Our Lord, knowing this, refuses to drink it. He would” take nothing to cloud his faculties or blunt the pain of dying. He chooses to suffer every element of woe in the bitter cup of agony given him by the Father (John 18:11).

“(1.) Heb. `attik (Ezek. 41:15, 16), a terrace; a projection;” ledge. “(2.) Heb. rahit (Cant. 1:17), translated “rafters,” marg. galleries; probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.

“Heaps, (1 Sam. 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti,” “to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin,” to the north of Jerusalem.

“The elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and” “for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was “deputy”,” “i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the” “emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The” word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows “his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius,” “and the governor of such a province was called a “proconsul.” He” “is spoken of by his contemporaries as “sweet Gallio,” and is” described as a most popular and affectionate man. When the Jews brought Paul before his tribunal on the charge of persuading “men to worship God contrary to the law (18:13), he refused to” “listen to them, and “drave them from the judgment seat” (18:16).”

“Heb. `ets, meaning “a tree” (Esther 6:4), a post or gibbet. In” “Gen. 40:19 and Deut. 21:22 the word is rendered “tree.”

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